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Say goodbye to unwanted files cluttering your repos, like *.jar or *.so. And limit who can make updates to sensitive files like your Actions workflows with the public beta of push rules. 🎉

A glimpse of push rules in action

You can now enable a new type of ruleset that allows you to control pushes to repositories based on file extensions, file path lengths, file and folder paths and file sizes. Push rules don’t require any branch targeting as they apply to every push to the repository, and also apply to all forks of the repo to ensure all pushes to the repository network are protected.

Push rules are now available for private and internal repositories for GitHub Teams, and across organizations for GitHub Enterprise Cloud.

Learn more about push rules in our documentation and join the community discussion to leave feedback.

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We are excited to announce a significant update to the comment box used in GitHub issues, discussions, and pull requests, aiming to refine and enhance how you interact and collaborate. This release is a testament to our ongoing efforts to provide an exceptional user experience, making GitHub more intuitive, consistent, and accessible across the platform.

A screenshot of the new comment box

The updated comment box is designed to integrate seamlessly with the existing GitHub environment, ensuring a familiar yet improved experience for all users. Highlights and improvements include:

  • Enhanced User Experience: The newly revamped comment box brings an elevated experience to a wider range of users across various devices. With this update, we've enhanced the responsiveness and streamlined the markup to better accommodate keyboard and screen reader users. This ensures a uniform and smooth user experience across issues, discussions, and pull requests, promoting seamless communication and collaboration.
  • Consistency and Familiarity: Our design philosophy for the new comment box was clear: keep it familiar, make it better. We’ve developed the updated version to closely resemble the original while enhancing it with improved accessibility, consistency, and ease of use across various screen sizes. The transition for you will be smooth, with no disruptions to your workflow.
  • Commitment to Accessibility: This update contributes to our continuous journey to make GitHub more accessible to everyone. The comment box now aligns more closely with our accessibility commitment, enhancing the experience in features such as issues, pull requests, and discussions. Check out our Accessibility Commitment to learn more about how we are making GitHub more inclusive.

We are excited for you to experience the new comment box and we welcome feedback to continue improving GitHub for everyone.

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Repository rule insights now make finding more details about how someone merged specific code into your repos even easier.

🔍 Filter by status

If you want only to see bypassed rules, you can now filter rule insight by the status of the results.

No more scrolling through and sorting through all the insight activity to find that one bypass situation. You can now filter by All Statuses, Pass, Fail, and Bypass.

Overview of selecting different rule insights status types. And showing the change between pass, fail, and bypass

👀 Clamoring for more insight into your rule insights?

Well, now you have access to way more information, including who ✅ approved and ❌ denied a pull request. As well as having access to the results of all required status checks and deployment status states right in rule insights.

Rule insight instance showing a specific passed status check.

👩‍💻 REST API Endpoint

Want to look for ruleset failures for a specific app programmatically?
With the new REST endpoint, you can now view and query rule insights via your favorite API tools.

Repository Endpoint

All repo insight activity

–  GET{owner}/{repo}/rulesets/rule-suites

Specific insight rule suite for a repository ruleset
–  GET{owner}/{repo}/rulesets/rule-suites/{rule _suite_id}

Organization Endpoint

All org insight activity
–  GET{org}/rulesets/rule-suites

Specific insight rule suite for an organization ruleset
–  GET{org}/rulesets/rule-suites/{rule_suite_id}

Click here to learn more. If you have feedback, please share and let us know in our feedback discussion.

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Today we are announcing the general availability of pull request merge queue! 🎉

Merge queue helps increase velocity in software delivery by automating pull request merges into your busiest branches. Screenshot of pull request merge queue

Before merge queue, developers would often need to update their pull request branches prior to merging to ensure their changes wouldn't break the main branch because of incompatibilities with pull requests already merged. Each of these updates caused a new round of continuous integration (CI) checks that would have to finish before the developer could attempt to merge. Merge queue automates this process by ensuring each pull request queued for merging is tested with any other pull requests queued ahead of it.

Merge queue is available on private and public repos on the GitHub Enterprise Cloud plan and all public repos owned by organizations.

Check out this video demo of how merge queue works.


Over the last few months, we've been busy fixing bugs and responding to feedback. As part of the general availability, we're announcing the following updates:

  • New: A merge_group webhook event with an action of destroyed is now published when a merge group is destroyed for any reason, including when it's merged or invalidated because a pull request is removed from the queue.
  • Fixed: The before and created properties of the push webhook event published when a temporary branch is created by the queue are now set to reflect a branch was created
  • Changed: Jumping to the front of the queue is now only available to admins by default in repos on GitHub Enterprise, but can be granted to individual users and teams using a custom repository role. Previously, any user with write access could jump the queue, but admins did not have a way to limit access to it or grant it to users without write access.
  • Fixed: A pull_request.dequeued webhook event is now consistently published whenever a pull request is removed from the queue for any reason, including when it has been merged by the queue.

Learn more

For more on how to get started with merge queue, check out details on our blog!

A special thanks

A huge shout out and thank you to our customers in the community that participated in the public beta of this feature. Your input will help teams prevent traffic jams on their busiest branches! Hooray!

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Last year, we made merging pull requests much faster by using the merge-ort strategy. Now, rebase commits get the same merge-ort treatment. This results in significantly improved speed: the P99 (the average time to complete rebases excluding the 1% slowest outliers) used to take around 3.6 seconds. P99 with the new strategy is 0.35 seconds. Because of the speedup, the fraction of PR rebases which fail due to timeouts dropped from 1.3% to 0.14%.

Learn more about the Git merge-ort strategy and merge methods for pull requests.

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We've shipped a small fix to improve security around creation of pull requests in public repos.

Prior to this fix and under very specific conditions, a user could create a pull request in a public repo even though they did not have push access to either the base or head branch and were not a member of the repo's organization. Often these pull requests were created by mistake and quickly closed, but could still trigger unexpected GitHub Actions or other CI jobs.

This fix has no impact on the common open source workflow where a user forks a public repo, makes a change in their fork, and then proposes their change using a pull request. This fix also has no impact on pull requests already created.

We want to hear from you! Let us know if you have questions or feedback.

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Previously, all attached (drag-and-dropped) images and videos on GitHub Issues, Pull Requests, Discussions, and wikis were available to view without authentication if you knew their direct URL. Now, future attachments associated with private repositories can only be viewed after logging in. This doesn’t apply retroactively to existing attachments, which are obfuscated by having a long, unguessable URL.

Email notifications sent from private repositories will no longer display images; each image is replaced by a link to view it on the web. Content inside a Git repository is not affected by this change and has always required authentication for private repositories.

Learn more about attaching files.

Questions or suggestions? Join the conversation in the community discussion.

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As we work towards general availability of pull request merge queue, we want to thank everyone that has provided feedback (keep it coming!) and let you know about some recent fixes and new API support.

See the public beta announcement to learn more about merge queue and how it can help increase velocity by automating pull request merges into your busiest branches.

🆕 API support

You can now interact with merge queue programmatically using new GraphQL APIs. Add or remove a pull request from the queue, see which pull requests are queued, get details about a queued pull request, and more. For example:

Call the enqueuePullRequest mutation to add a pull request to the queue or dequeuePullRequest to remove a pull request.

Use the mergeQueue field on Repository to list its contents or configuration. Use the mergeQueueEntry field on PullRequest to get details about a queued pull request including its state, position in the queue, estimated time to merge, and more.

🐛 Fixes

Some of the more noteworthy fixes made since the public beta launch:

  • Fixed: GitHub Actions workflows would not trigger on merge_group events in some repos
  • Fixed: failing queued pull request would remain failing even after checks were rerun and and passed
  • Fixed: confusing “pushed a commit that referenced this pull request” message would appear in the timeline
  • Fixed: commits could be pushed to queue-created prep branches (note: these commits were ignored and not merged, but it created confusion for some users)

Get started

Interested in merge queue? Learn how to get started.

Questions or suggestions? Join the conversation in the merge queue public beta discussion.

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Today we are announcing the public beta of repository rules! 🎉

Repository rules are GitHub’s next evolution of branch protections to help make your repositories more secure and compliant at scale.

Screenshot of ruleset overview

Rules allow you to easily define protections for branches and tags in your repositories and, if you are a GitHub Enterprise Cloud customer, to enforce them across your organization. It is also easier for everyone collaborating on your repositories to know what rules are in place.

Creating rules

Screenshot of creating a ruleset

At the core of rules is the ability to define rulesets. A ruleset is a collection of rules that are enforced together. For example, you could require that all commits to a branch are signed and that those commits have two reviewers. Rulesets can also be applied to tags, allowing you to enforce rules on releases.

The ruleset page is the central place to view and manage all the rules for a repository. It shows the rules that are currently in place and allows you to add new rulesets or edit existing ones.

When creating a ruleset, you define its enforcement status as active or disabled. Active rulesets must pass for a commit to be merged, while disabled rulesets are not enforced; they will not prevent merges but allow admins to craft rules before enforcing them. Enterprise Cloud customers can also evaluate rulesets: a “dry run” mode for understanding the impact of new rules before they are active and enforced.

It’s also easier to target branches and tags in rulesets, with options to select the default branch, all branches, and branches or tags that match an fnmatch pattern. You can add multiple patterns to a ruleset to apply it to different branch and tag naming styles.

Viewing the rules

You can always know what rules are in place for a repository.

Anyone with read access to a repository can view its rules and what they mean. The rulesets overview is linked from the branches page by clicking the shield icon, and from a pull request, and from the output of the Git CLI when rules block a push.

From here, you can filter rules by branches or tags to understand how a rule might be enforced on your next push.

Screenshot of read only view of rules

Getting Started

Repository rules are now available to all GitHub cloud customers. To get started, visit the documentation to learn how to enable and use rules. For Enterprise Cloud customers, visit the documentation to learn about organization rulesets and more.

We want to hear from you on how we can improve repository rules! Join the conversation in the repository rules public beta discussion.

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Commenting on files (including deleted, binary, and renamed files) in a pull request is now generally available on the web and GitHub Mobile! A special thank you to everyone that provided feedback during the public beta.

API support is also now available. See create a review comment (REST API) or addPullRequestReviewThread (GraphQL mutation) for more details on commenting on files. A new "subject type" field is also now returned by other APIs indicating whether a comment is on a line or file.

Learn more

Learn more about commenting on a pull request.

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GitHub users write a lot of Markdown; so much so that we render 2 billion Markdown files everyday; at peak times, we're processing 1,300 Markdown files a second! Any opportunity we have to shave a few seconds off of the Markdown authoring experience on GitHub is time well-spent.

Introducing Markdown Helpers powered by Slash Commands

To use Markdown Helpers, simply type / on Issues, Pull Requests, or Discussion descriptions/comments and use the subsequent dialog to choose from a number of useful Markdown shortcuts.

Use shortcuts like /table to make Markdown tables a breeze, or /details to make selectively showing content to readers much easier than remembering the HTML formatting.

As part of our first release, we've included 6 out-of-the-box features which we hope will help teams author Markdown faster and with less context switching:

  • Code Block
    • Support for language-specific syntax highlighting
  • Details
    • Specify details that the reader can open and close on demand
  • Saved Replies
  • Table
    • Easily insert Markdown Tables
  • Templates
    • Easily populate your Repository's Issue or Pull Request templates directly from Slash Commands!
  • Tasklist
    • Easily insert a Tasklist
    • Note: Tasklists are currently in Private Beta, only users in organizations added to the Private Beta will see this option)

We'd love to hear from you!

Be sure to check out the official Slash Commands documentation for more details on the commands we're releasing today.

Anything we missed? Got an idea for a great Slash Commands feature?

Please leave us some feedback in our Feedback Discussion about how you'd like to use Slash Commands on GitHub.

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Commenting directly on a file in a pull request (not just a specific line) is now available in public beta! 🎉

With this capability you can now comment on deleted, binary (including images), and renamed files in a pull request. You can also comment generally about a changed code file without having to attach the comment to a specific line.

How it works

To comment on any file in a pull request, click the Comment on this file button in the header of the file (next to the Viewed checkbox):

Comments on files appear in the Files Changed and Conversation tabs and can be replied to and resolved like regular review comments.

Tell us what you think

This feature is currently in public beta, with GitHub Mobile and API support coming soon.

Join the discussion and let us know what you think!

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Rich diffs of Jupyter Notebook files in pull requests are now available in preview. With the feature preview enabled, you can compare cell-level inputs and outputs (including images), as well as notebook and cell metadata, thanks to nbdime. Check it out:


The rich diff functionality will need to be enabled via the Feature Preview menu found when clicking on your avatar. Click here to learn more about feature previews and how to enable it. Please note that this is an early-access feature and there are some limitations; most notably, you cannot currently comment on lines in rich diff mode and will need to toggle the source diff to do so.

We'd love to hear from you! Once you try it out, let us know what you think in this feedback discussion. Stay tuned for future updates!

Note: If you were previously enrolled in the private beta for this feature and no longer see rich diffs, you may have to re-enable the feature preview via the menu.

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You can now create a custom role to manage branch protections without having to grant the Admin role. Previously, to manage branch protections you had to be an Admin which provides additional permissions that may not be needed. For tighter control of Admin permissions, you can now craft a custom role that has the Edit repository rules permission, allowing just the right amount of access.

Image of Custom roles that shows the new Edit Repository Rules permission

This permission grants the ability to create, edit, and delete both branch protection rules and protected tags.

For more information, visit Managing custom repository roles for an organization in the GitHub documentation.

We appreciate feedback on this in GitHub's public feedback discussions.

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Today we are announcing the public beta of pull request merge queue for repos on GitHub Enterprise Cloud and open source organizations! 🎉

Merge queue helps increase velocity in software delivery by automating pull request merges into your busiest branches.

Pull request merge queue

Before merge queue, developers were often required to update their pull request branches prior to merging to ensure their changes wouldn't break the main branch when merged. Each update resulted in a fresh round of continuous integration (CI) checks that would have to finish before the developer could attempt to merge. If another pull request got merged, every developer would have to go through the process again.

Merge queue automates this process by ensuring each pull request queued for merging is built with the pull requests ahead of it in the queue.

Queueing a pull request to merge

If your pull request targets a branch that uses merge queue, instead of merging your pull request directly when it meets the requirements to merge, you will add it to the queue by clicking Merge when ready from the pull request page or from GitHub Mobile.

Queue to merge

The queue then creates a temporary branch that contains the latest changes from the base branch, the changes from other pull requests already in the queue, and the changes from your pull request. CI then starts, with the expectation that all required status checks must pass before the branch (and the pull requests it represents) are merged.

If a queued pull request has merge conflicts or fails any required status check, it is automatically removed from the queue when it reaches the front, and a notification is sent. Once the problem is resolved, it can be added back to the queue.

Learn more about merging a pull request with merge queue from the pull request page. You can also queue your pull request on the go using the beta version of GitHub Mobile from iOS TestFlight or Google Play (Beta)!

Viewing the queue

Always know where you are in the queue.

The queue details page, which can be accessed from the Branches page or pull request page, shows the pull requests in the queue and status for each, including the required status checks and estimated time to merge. It also shows how many pull requests have been merged and the trend over the last 30 days.

Merge queue details page

Depending on your permissions, you can also remove a pull request from the queue or clear the queue from this page.

Getting started

Merge queue can help improve overall velocity and avoid manual branch updates that impact developer productivity. Learn more about how to enable merge queue on your busiest branches.

We want to hear from you on how we can improve merge queue! Join the conversation in the merge queue public beta discussion.

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Today we're releasing two new branch protections.

Require approval from someone other than the last pusher

Now, before a pull request can be merged, you can require it to be approved by someone other than the last pusher.
Meaning, the most recent user to push their changes will need a pull request approval regardless of the Require approvals branch protection. Or in the case of 1 approval required, someone other than the last user to push their changes will also need to approve. If the approvals come from other folks than the last pusher, those two approvals will be sufficient.

Screenshot of Last Push protection enabled.

Lock branch

This allows for branches to be locked, prohibiting changes. You can lock a branch allowing you to have a maintenance window and prevent changes, or to protect a fork so it only receives changes from its upstream repository.

To use this feature in a branch protection rule, enable Lock branch.

Screenshot of Lock branch with fork sync enabled

For more information, read About protected branches in the GitHub documentation.

We appreciate feedback on this and other topics in GitHub's public feedback discussions.

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On September 5, 2022, we reverted a recent change to our indirect pull request merge logic that was causing some pull requests to be incorrectly marked as merged. This could happen if a pull request's head branch was force pushed and resulted in the pull request showing no new commits compared to the base branch. The original change went live on August 1, 2022 and caused confusion about why some pull requests were marked as merged by a contributor who did not have the necessary permissions. It also had the side effect of removing the "first time contributor" flag from these contributors without them having made an accepted contribution by the repository maintainers. Depending on repository settings, this could have allowed first time contributors to run GitHub Actions workflows based on their branches.

At no point were users able to push changes or merge pull requests in repositories to which they did not have appropriate authorization. After the change was reverted, GitHub conducted an investigation into any bypasses of the "first time contributor" flag and found no evidence of abuse.

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The author of the Git commit created when squash merging a pull request is now shown before merging. Previously, the commit author was only shown when merging with a merge commit.


Also, if the user merging the pull request also opened it and has multiple email addresses configured, a drop-down now lets them choose a different email address to use for the commit's author.


These improvements are designed to ensure Git commits created by squash merging are associated with the correct email address.

Learn more about merging a pull request.

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