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In July, we experienced one incident that resulted in degraded performance for Codespaces. This report also sheds light into two incidents in June that impacted multiple GitHub.com services.
Our alerting systems detected degraded availability for Codespaces in the US West and East regions during this time. Due to the recency of this incident, we are still investigating the contributing factors and will provide a more detailed update on cause and remediation in the August Availability Report, which will publish the first Wednesday of September.
During this incident, Codespaces was made unavailable due to issues introduced when migrating a DNS record to a new load balancer.
Codespaces runs a set of microservices in each region where Codespaces can be created. In order to route requests to the nearest region for each user, we have a global DNS record that uses a load balancer to resolve to the nearest regional backend. When performing an infrastructure migration, we needed to switch this record to point to a new load balancer. In order to do that, we deleted the existing global record in order to replace it with a record that pointed to the new balancer. Unfortunately, adding the new replacement record failed. Thus, any requests made to the global DNS record that pointed to Codespaces services were denied. Our alerting systems detected this almost immediately; however, our attempt to rollback the DNS update to switch to the old configuration also failed. We then disabled an endpoint in the old load balancer, upon which the rollback succeeded and all metrics recovered (after some time due to DNS caching and TTL).
As a follow-up, we are investigating safer mechanisms for testing the new load balancers and atomic DNS record updates, including setting up a mirrored testing DNS zone. We are also following up with our cloud provider to understand why the initial rollback failed and whether this is a bug.
During this incident, services including GitHub Actions, API Requests, Codespaces, Git Operations, GitHub Packages, and GitHub Pages were impacted. This was due to excessive load on a proxy server that routes traffic to the database.
At approximately 14:14 UTC, the internal APIs that a data migration service uses to communicate with GitHub.com began returning 502 Service Unavailable errors to requests. This migration service allows customers to migrate to GitHub.com from other external sources, including GitHub Enterprise Server. As part of its exception handling, the service contains retry logic to requeue jobs. However, this logic captured all exceptions rather than just a subset. The 502 errors it caught triggered a bug that caused jobs to continuously requeue themselves to be retried. The situation quickly escalated when hundreds of thousands of jobs made identical API requests, overwhelming the database’s proxy server.
We mitigated the situation by pausing the processing of all new customer-initiated migrations performed with the data migration service at 15:07 UTC. We also pruned the queues of all jobs associated with in-progress migrations to alleviate the pressure on the proxy server. Approximately nine minutes later, we began to see affected services recover.
We have updated exception handling to only retry jobs in cases of a specific set of errors. We have also adjusted our logic to retry a fixed number of times before logging the exception and giving up. These actions eliminate the possibility of continuous requeuing. We are also investigating whether changes are needed to the rate limits of our internal APIs.